The ERICA Model was devised by Morris & Stuart-Dore and stands for Effective Reading in The Content Areas. This text gives a rationale, processes and examples.

Morris & Stuart-Dore (1984). Learning To Learn From Text: Effective Reading in the Content Areas. Sydney: Addison-Wesley.


  • Introduction

PART 1: Reading in the Content Areas

  • Why focus on reading in the content areas?
  • Teacher concerns
  • What is reading?
  • Why Teach Reading?
What is Content Area Reading?
  • Reading to learn
  • Expository versus Narrative materials
  • Language registers
  • Conclusion
The Need To Focus On Content Area Reading
  • Effective reading is tied to effective teaching and learning
  • Effective content area reading cannot be assumed
  • Reading is a thinking process
  • Efficient reading is necessary for independent learning
  • We learn by doing
Communication And Content Area Reading
  • The central role of language
  • The nature of subject language and its use
  • Register of subjects
  • Strategies for experiencing subject language

PART 2: Reading To Learn: The ERICA Model

Stage 1: Preparing for reading

The Structured Overview: Organising Our Ideas
  • Introduction
  • Development of a structured overview
  • Use of the structured overview
    • When introducing a topic
    • For ongoing reference
    • For revision or assessment
    • Summary
    • Activities
The Graphic Outline: Surveying The Material
  • Introduction
  • Materials suitable for graphic outlines
  • Types of graphic outlines
  • Constructing a graphic outline
  • Use of graphic outlines
    • To the teacher
    • To the student
    • Summary
Learning New Vocabulary
  • Introduction
  • Identifying content area vocabulary
  • Effects of non-specialised vocabulary
  • Which vocabulary should be taught?
  • The importance of context clues
  • Teaching the use of context clues
  • Conclusion
  • Summary

Stage 2: Thinking Through The Reading

  • Introduction
Three-Level Reading Guides
  • What do Three-Level Reading Guides look like?
  • Determining content objectives
  • Constructing a Three-Level Guide
    • Summary
  • Using Three-Level Guides
  • Qualities of 'good' Three-Level Guides
  • Some tips on using Three-Level Guides
Cloze Exercises
  • Using Cloze to develop comprehension
  • Cloze activities versus Cloze Tests

Stage 3: Extracting and organising information

  • Introduction
  • Problems caused by some educational practices
  • Extracting information
  • Seeing the overall plan
  • Getting into the text
    • Recognising Top Level Structures
  • Seeing main ideas and supporting details
  • Diagrams as aids to understanding
  • Outlining
  • Conclusion

Stage 4: Translating Information From Reading To Writing

  • Introduction
    • Retelling experience
    • How does this relate to school learning?
  • Translating information - What is it?
  • Why translate ideas through writing?
    • Overcoming Verbatum 'Copying Out'
    • Making Use Of Information
    • Promoting The Writing Habit
    • Showing How Reading And Writing Are Interrelated Language/Learning Activities
  • What Audiences Are There For Student Writing?
    • In Class Audiences
    • Audiences In Other Schools
    • Adult Audiences
    • Sharing One's Writing With Others
  • Developing Flexibility In Communicating What Has Been Learned
  • How Is Translating Information Achieved?
    • The Writing Environment: RSVP
    • Reasons For Writing
    • Context, Purpose And Audience Determine Form
  • Going About Writing
    • Pre-writing
    • Rough Drafts
    • The Conference Approach
    • Reading To Review
    • Redrafting
    • Editing
    • Final Copy
    • Publishing Students' Writing
    • Response To Writing
  • How Is Such Writing Assessed?
  • But It Must Take Up A Lot Of Time?

PART 3: Background To The ERICA Model

Existing Models
  • SQ3R
Development Of The ERICA Model
  • Small Group Discussions
  • Content Of The ERICA Stages
  • Preparation
    • Advance Organisers
    • Purpose Setting Questions
    • Structured Overviews
    • Text Structures
    • Surveying
    • Pre-Teaching Vocabulary
  • Thinking Through
    • Three-Level Reading Guides
    • Selective Deletion Cloze Activities
  • Extracting And Organising Information
    • Conceptual Overload
    • Cohesion
    • Poor Paragraph Structure
  • Translating Information
    • The Role Of Language In Learning
    • Reading and Writing: Interrelationships
    • Integrated Reading And Writing Models
    • Writing Processes

PART 4: Appendix

Sample Curriculum Units Of Work Incorporating ERICA Strategies
  • Unit 1: Science
  • Unit 2: History
  • Unit 3: Geography
  • Unit 4: Mathematics
  • Unit 5: Home Economics
  • Unit 6: English